Hydrating tweet IDs

Published Categorized as Data science
You can check for any tweet ID using this URL: https://twitter.com/check/status/tweet_id.

Twitter has become an ultimate source of data for researchers. Its API is relatively straightforward and easy to use. Pulling tweets from Twitter is not as difficult as it seems. The variants of Twitter API lets the researchers access its live feed (streaming API) or search through tweets (search API).

However, researchers must follow certain terms and conditions while dealing with the data retrieved from Twitter. Although researchers are allowed to access and pull data from its live feed or search and pull older tweets, they are not allowed to share the raw data with a third party. Only the tweet IDs, user IDs and/or message IDs can be shared publicly. Other parties who want to access the dataset you’re sharing must hydrate the IDs in order to re-create a fresh raw dataset. The process of retrieving a tweet’s complete information using its ID is known as the hydration of a tweet ID.

You can go through Twitter’s developer policy for further information.

I’ve been maintaining a large-scale Twitter corpus (COVID-19 specific) since March 20, 2020. The corpus is freely available to the public from IEEE. As per Twitter’s policy, I’m only releasing the tweet IDs. You’ll have to hydrate the IDs to get a fresh raw dataset at your end. As of writing this article, the dataset has more than 1 billion COVID-19 specific tweets.

https://ieee-dataport.org/open-access/coronavirus-covid-19-tweets-dataset

Hydrating tweet IDs

If you came across a list of tweet IDs on the internet and would like to hydrate those IDs; you’ll need to have access to the Twitter API. For this purpose, a Twitter developer account is a must. Go to Twitter’s Developers Portal and signup for a dev account. Once your account is approved you can easily use third-party tools to access the Twitter API and hydrate the IDs.

There are multiple desktop applications and libraries available for hydrating tweet IDs. You’re here reading this article definitely means that you would want a suggestion on this. I personally use the twarc python library to deal with hydration. However, if you are someone who would prefer not to deal with even a single line of code, I’d suggest you use the Hydrator Desktop Application. Both of these handle the rate limits for you.

“Rate limits?” Well, Twitter has rate limits placed on the number of times you can call its API every “window period.” The window period varies depending upon the version/type of API you’re using.

How many tweet IDs can you hydrate in a day?

The calculation goes something like this for the standard statuses/lookup endpoint (which has a per 15 min window size): the total number of 15 min windows in a day) * the number of requests allowed per window * max number of tweets that can be retrieved in every request. Unless it’s a paid developer account, we cannot increase the number of requests.

The number of requests allowed per window is 900 for statuses/lookup endpoint; therefore the endpoint gives around 8,640,000 tweets every 24 hours. Here’s the calculation: (1440/15) * 900 * 100. Where 100 is the max number of tweets that can be retrieved in every request.

Using Hydrator Desktop Application

Head out to the releases section of Hydrator, and download the application based on the machine you have (Windows, Mac, Linux). And install the application.

Once the application is installed, you’ll be presented with a request to link your Twitter account so that you can retrieve data from Twitter. Click on “Link Twitter Account.” A browser window opens up so that you can authorize the application to access your Twitter account. Once you verify the authorization request on Twitter, you’ll be presented with a PIN which should be entered in the field provided by Hydrator so as to complete the authorization.

Once the authorization is completed, visit the “Add” section of the Hydrator.

In the “Add” section, you need to select a tweet ID file. Most of the files you find online with a list of tweet IDs would be TXT or CSV files. Both formats are supported by this application. Go ahead, and add the tweet IDs file you’d want to hydrate. Fill out the “Title”, “Creator”, … , fields as appropriate.

Once you’ve filled out all the required details specific to your dataset, click “Add Dataset”. The application will start hydrating the tweet IDs. Once the hydration is finished, you can convert the resulting dataset into a CSV file.

Using twarc python library

The official GitHub repo for twarc is here. If you’re comfortable with python, you’ll take no more than 2-3 minutes to start hydrating the tweet IDs.

Let’s use pip to install the twarc library.

$ pip3 install twarc

If you do not have pip already installed in your system, install it first with the command below.

$ sudo apt install python3-pip

Once twarc is installed, you’re ready to start writing your script for hydrating a list of tweet IDs. Before getting started with the script, let’s configure twarc with your Twitter API keys. For this, visit Twitter’s Developer portal, create a new application, and get CONSUMER_KEYCONSUMER_SECRETACCESS_TOKENACCESS_TOKEN_SECRET of the newly created application. Once you have all the keys, use the following command to configure twarc.

$ twarc configure

Or, instead of configuring the keys from the command line, you can also set the keys while you write your script. Anyway, let’s write our very first hydration script.

Import twarc and initialize the keys.

from twarc import Twarc

consumer_key=""
consumer_secret=""
access_token=""
access_token_secret=""

Importing a TXT/CSV file that contains a list of tweet IDs.

t = Twarc(consumer_key, consumer_secret, access_token, access_token_secret)

for tweet in t.hydrate(open('tweet_ids.csv')):

After this, you’ll need to decide what tweet data you’d want to extract from the hydration. In our case let’s print tweet texttweet id and location from where the tweet was probably tweeted (if available; hence the if block).

print(tweet['text'])
print(tweet['id'])
    
if tweet['place']:
    print(tweet['place']['country'])

Now you can play around with Twitter data as per your needs. Suppose you want to know when a tweet was created, then you’d simply query the ['created_at'] attribute of the tweet data dictionary. For user’s name, you’d query ['user']['name'] , for user’s location, you’d query ['user']['location'], and so on.

For more information on Twitter objects, visit this official Twitter page.

Here’s the complete code:

from twarc import Twarc

consumer_key=""
consumer_secret=""
access_token=""
access_token_secret=""

t = Twarc(consumer_key, consumer_secret, access_token, access_token_secret)
for tweet in t.hydrate(open('tweet_ids.csv')):
    print(tweet['text'])
    print(tweet['id'])
    
    if tweet['place']:
        print(tweet['place']['country'])

What next? In my next article, I’d show how you can hydrate a list of IDs and store the result in an SQLite database. Have a good day, catch you in the next one.

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By Rabindra Lamsal

Ph.D. Candidate (Computer Science) at the University of Melbourne.

11 comments

  1. —————————————————————————
    KeyError Traceback (most recent call last)
    ~\AppData\Local\Temp/ipykernel_9624/2888605768.py in
    8 t = Twarc(consumer_key, consumer_secret, access_token, access_token_secret)
    9 for tweet in t.hydrate(open(‘corona_tweets_683.txt’)):
    —> 10 print(tweet[‘tweet’])
    11 print(tweet[‘id’])
    12

    KeyError: ‘tweet’

  2. for tweet in t.hydrate(open(‘tweet_ids.csv’)):
    print(tweet[‘text’])
    print(tweet[‘id’])

    Sorry to ask but why do I have a KeyError:’text’ when hydrating?

    Thank you!

    1. Hello Lemoe.

      Is tweet[‘id’] working for you? One thing you can do is, just have a single tweet id in your tweet_ids.csv file and print what the for loop brings in for you. This way you can check what particular key to use.

  3. Hello, I’m planning on hydrating tweet IDs for the research I’m currently helping conduct. I have a Levono Thinkpad (I think that’s microsoft?) and when I attempt to download the Hydrator Desktop App my computer is giving me a notification that it’s potentially dangerous. Is it safe to bypass that? Sounds like others have been using without issue. Get back whenever you can, thanks.

  4. Hello,
    When I Select a Tweet ID file I’m getting an “error: line 1” message. No clue what the issue is, I tried a number of different files.

  5. Hello,
    Correction to my last comment… when I select a tweet ID file, I am getting an “invalid tweet on line 1” message. Please let me know if there is a fix to this, thanks.
    Brendan

  6. Hello,

    How do I save or write the output into an excel file or text file?

    When I run the code, it says executed but I do not see anything printing and when I try to print(tweet[‘text’]), I get the below error:

    NameError Traceback (most recent call last)
    ~\AppData\Local\Temp/ipykernel_21156/1384365208.py in
    —-> 1 print(tweet[‘text’])

    NameError: name ‘tweet’ is not defined

    1. Hi. You can create an SQLite database and dump your tweets inside it instead of printing. Make sure you have a Twitter dev account with valid API credentials. I believe the API is not returning anything on your side. I can’t really say anything concrete without going through the code.

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